Cargo is Rust’s built-in package manager and the build system. It can be used to,
- The training process. Crate training can take days or weeks, depending on your dog's age, temperament and past experiences. It's important to keep two things in mind while crate training: The crate should always be associated with something pleasant and training should take place in a series of small steps.
- Crate Run is a free online browser game that you can play at flasharcadegamessite.com, belongs in the skill games category, added on the 6 April 2013 and played 5.15k times. By gp studios, developed by Roman Pidstryhach. Play crate run a platform based action game and guide the little white square as it overcomes various obstacles within each room.
Crate Run Description: In Crate Run, you have to move the crate through several levels dodging spikes and cannons among other obstacles. Make sure to also watch out for the disappearing platforms. CrateDB is a distributed SQL database handles massive amounts of machine data in real-time.
- Create a new project:
- Create a new project in an existing directory:
- Build the project:
- Run the project:
- Update project dependencies:
- Run tests:
- Run benchmarks:
- Generate the project documentation via rustdoc:
- Analyze the project to see it has any errors, without building it:
In addition, there are
cargo commands to publish the project as a crate/ package to Rust’s official crate registry, crates.io.
💡 We need to get an API token from crates.io to publish a crate to it. The API token can be found in the Account Settings page, after login to that site. We will discuss more about this under code organization with crates.
- Login to crates.io with the API token:
- Make the local crate uploadable to crates.io:
- Upload the crate to crates.io:
- Install a Rust binary:
- Uninstall a Rust binary:
A crate is a package, which can be shared via crates.io. A crate can produce an executable or a library. In other words, it can be a binary crate or a library crate.
cargo new crate_name --binor
cargo new crate_name: Produces an executable
cargo new crate_name --lib: Produces a library
The first one generates,
and the second one generates,
- Cargo.toml(capital c) is the configuration file which contains all of the metadata that Cargo needs to compile your project.
- src folder is the place to store the source code.
- Each crate has an implicit crate root/ entry point. main.rs is the crate root for a binary crate and lib.rs is the crate root for a library crate.
💡 When we build a binary crate via
cargo build or
cargo run, the executable file will be stored in the target/debug/ folder. But when building it via
cargo build --release for a release it will be stored in the target/release/ folder. The release builds are applying more optimizations while compiling the code, to make the code run faster. But it takes more compile time.
This is how Cargo documentation describes about the recommended project layout,
- The source code goes in the
- The default executable file is
- The default library file is
- Other executables can be placed in
- The default executable file is
- Integration tests go in the
testsdirectory (unit tests go in each file they’re testing).
- Benchmarks go in the
- Examples go in the
After the initial release in 2015, according to the feedback got from user communities, the Rust team was focusing to increase the productivity of the language and the ecosystem. After 3 years of hard work in 2018, a new Rust edition was released with new features, simplified syntax and better tooling. We call it Rust 2018 edition.
To keep the promise of supporting backward compatibility, the new
edition = '2018' configuration was added to the
Cargo.toml file. For new projects, the
cargo new command adds this configuration by default. So, you don’t need to care. But on legacy crates, if you can not see any
edition configuration, Cargo will consider it as a Rust 2015 edition crate.
Before going to the next…
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.cargo/bindirectory of your home directory is the default location of Rust binaries. Not only the official binaries like
rlsand also the binaries you can install via
cargo installcommand, will be stored in this directory.
Even though the initial convention for naming crates and file names is using the
snake_case, some crate developers are using
kebab-caseon both crates and file names. To make your code more consistent, use the initial convention
snake_case; especially on file names.
Create an executable crate via
cargo newcommand and run it via
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Create a library crate via
cargo newcommand and run